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Prof. Dr. G.D. Sumanapala
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Professor of Pali & Buddhist Studies - Merit promotion, 1998.
Professor of Pali - Chair, 1998.
Ph.D. title of the thesis: A Study on the Conception of Dhamma in the Theravada Abhidhamma, 1998, University of Kelaniya, Sri Lanka.
Associate Professor of Pali & Buddhist Studies - Merit promotion, 1994.
M.A. Title of the thesis - A Critical Edition of Abhidammatthavibhvinitika, University of Kelaniya, 1986-1987.
Ph.D. research student at the Australian National University - 1988 - 1989.
Followed three months course in Linguistics, University of Poona, India, 1984.
B.A. Honours in Pali (Sanskrit as the subsidiary subject), First Class, University of Kelaniya, 1972-1976.
Royal Pandit Degree in Pali, Sanskrit & Sinhala (awarded Sri Wimalakirti Prize for Pali & Prakrit), Oriental Studies Society , Dept. of Education, Sri Lanka, 1972.

The Australian National University PhD Scholarship, 1998.
Commonwealth Scholarship awarded by the Indian Government, 1984.
Sri Wimalakirti Prize for Pali & Prakrit, Oriental Studies Society, Ministry of Education, 1972.

Senior Professor -Chair, Dept. of Pali & Buddhist Studies, University of Kelaniya, Sri Lanka.
Member of the Senate, University of Kelaniya, Sri Lanka.
Member of the Faculty of Humanities, University of Kelaniya.
Member of the Board of Studies for Foreign Students, University of Kelaniya.
Member of the Higher Degrees Committee, Faculty of Humanities, University of Kelaniya.
Acting Director, Postgraduate Institute of Pali & Buddhist Studies, University of Kelaniya.
Member of the Senate, Buddhist & Pali University, Sri Lanka.
External Examiner, University of Colombo.
External Examiner, University of Peradeniya.
Member of the Executive Committee of the International Association of Buddhist Universities, Head Office, Mahachulankarn University, Thailand.

Chairman, Departmental Committee, W.A.I. 2003.
Chairman, Higher Degrees Committee, W.A.I. 2003.
Course Co-ordinator, Vacaspati Degree in Ayurveda, W.A.I, 2003.
Member, Library Committee, W.A.I., 2003.
Lecturer, Post-Graduate Diploma in Hospital Management, W.A.I., 2003.
Lecturer in Sanskrit, Astrology and Psycho-Therapy, W.A.I., 2003.
Lecturer -in-charge, Dept. of Cikitsa, W.A.I., 2003.
Chairman, Board of Management, W.A.I., 2003.
Acting Director, Wickramarachchi Ayurveda Institute, University of Kelaniya, 2003 (W.A.I.).
A Member of the Senate Sub-Committee appointed to look into the possibility of Conducting Postgraduate Diploma Course in Buddhist Studies in Singapore, 1999.
Course Co-ordinator, Courses for foreign Students, Dept. of Pali & Buddhist Studies, University of Kelaniya, 1997- 2000.
Head, Dept. of Pali & Buddhist Studies, University of Kelaniya, Kelaniya, 1997-2000.
Visiting Lecturer, Yuan Heng Buddhist College, Taiwan, 1994.
Temporary Teacher, Vidyalankara Pirivena, Peliyagoda, 1982.
Temporary Teacher, Vidyanivasa Pirivena, Walpola, Ragama, 1976.
Temporary Teacher, Saraswati Pirivena, Balagalla, Divulapitiya, 1975.
Visiting Lecturer, University of Ruhuna, Dept. of Pali & Buddhist Studies, Matara, 1993-1994.
Visiting Lecturer, Paramadhamma Buddhist Institute for foreign Students, Peliyagoda, 1985-1990.
Permanent teacher, Sri Jnanesvara Pirivena, Colombo 2, 1978- 1981

"Sanskrit and Buddhist Studies" - Lecture and Seminar, Jawaharlal Nehru University, Delhi, India, 2007
"Abhidhamma and Early Buddhism" - Lecture and Seminar, Delhi University, India, 2007.
"Buddhist Meditation" - a lecturer and seminar, Samadhi Buddhist Society, Singapore, 2006.
A series of lectures and seminars in the Postgraduate Diploma Course in Buddhist Studies, Buddhist Research Society, Singapore, 2005.
"Philosophical Background of Ayurveda" - a lecture and seminar held at W.A.I. 2004.
"Buddhist Rituals" - lecture and seminar held at Samadhi Foundation, Singapore, 2004.
"Research Methodology in Ayurveda" - a lecture and seminar held at W.A.I. 2003.
"Buddhist Meditation" - a lecture and seminar held at Samadhi Foundation, Singapore, 2003.
"Samadhi: Meditation" - a lecture and seminar held at Samadhi Foundation, Singapore, 2002.
"Techniques of Buddhist Meditation" - seminar held at the Graduate School of Buddhist Studies, Singapore, 2001.
"Nature of Postgraduate Buddhist Studies" - seminar held at the Graduate School of Buddhist Studies, Singapore, 2001.
"Fundamentals of Buddhist Philosophy" - lecture and seminar held at the Utkal University of Culture, Orissa, India, 2001.
"Preservation of Indian Traditional Art in Its Purity" - lecture and seminar held at the Utkal University of Culture, Orissa, India, 2001.
"Universal Characteristics in Buddhist Philosophy" - lecture and seminar held at the Utkal University of Culture,Orissa, India, 2001.
"Buddhist Studies in the Context of University Education" - lecture and seminar held at the Utkal University of Culture, Orissa, India, 2001.
"Role of Buddhist Monks in Solving Social Problems in the Present Society" - a lecture and seminar held at the Center for the study of human rights, University of Colombo, January, 2000.
"Self Understanding" - a lecture and seminar held at Gampaha Wickramarachchi Ayurveda Institute, University of Kelaniya, January 2000.
"Astral Body and the Reality" - a lecture and seminar held at the University of Kelaniya, January 2000.
"An Introduction to Basic Teachings of Early Buddhism and the Later Buddhist Schools" - a series of lectures and a seminar held at the Buddhist Research Society, Singapore, December 1999.
"Buddhist Atomism" - Lecture and seminar held at the University of Kelaniya, August 1999.
"Buddhist Attitude to Love and Marriage" - Lecture and Seminar held at the University of Kelaniya, July 1999.
"Kamma, Rebirth and the Buddhist Ethics" - Lecture and seminar held at the University of Kelaniya, July 1999.
"Mental Problems and the Buddhist Thought" - Lecture and seminar held at the University of Kelaniya, July 1999.
"The Early Buddhist View of Existence" - Lecture and seminar held at BMICH, Colombo. The Taisho-University and Kelaniya University, Buddhist Symposium, February 1999.
"The National Heroes" - Lecture delivered at the Kelani Young Men's Buddhist Association, Kiribathgoda, September, 1998.
"Theravada Analysis of Language in Philosophical Context" - Lecture and seminar held at the University of Peradeniya, Dept. of Philosophy, July, 1998.
"An Introduction to the Basic Doctrines of Early Buddhism and the Later Buddhist Schools" - seminar and a series of lectures, Buddhist Research Society, Singapore, December, 1997.
"An Introduction to Abhidhamma" - Seminar and a series of lectures, Buddhist Research Society, Singapore, June 1997.
"The Social Context of Buddhist Meditation" - paper (in Sinhala) read at the Sri Jnanasiha Memorial Seminar, Foundation Institute, Colombo, 1996.
"The Evolution of Abhidhamma Philosophy" - Lecture delivered at the Yuen Heng Buddhist College, Taiwan, November 1994.
"Theravada Abhidhamma" - Its subject - matter and the present usage' paper ( in Sinhala) read at the Vidyalankara Day. Academic Seminar, organised by the Vidyalankara Pirivena, Kelaniya, October, 1993.
"Lalitavistaraya" - Its subject -matter and the Historical background, Lecture delivered at the Silpakorn University,Dept. of Sanskrit, Bangkok, Thailand, March 1990.

Co-editor, Abhivadana, Papiliyana, 2003.
Co-editor, Sambhavana, Colombo, 2001.
Co-editor, Saraddha, Bio Print, Kirillawala, 2000.
Co-editor, Sri - Nanarama Abhinandana, Teyak Printers, Divulapitiya, 2000.
Editor, Vibhavi, A Journal in Pali Language, 1996.
Co-editor, Daham Guru Aruna, The Commemorative volume of the Buddhist Training College, Nesec Foundation, Ranmutugala, 1996.

Advanced Pali Course of five months, Buddhist Research Society, Singapore, 2005.
"Philosophical Background of Ayurveda", a lecture and seminar held at W.A.I. 2004.
One year series of lectures in the Post-graduate Diploma Course in Buddhist Studies, Singapore, 2001.
A Course on "Keys to the Abhidhamma", Graduate School of Buddhist Studies, Geylang Singapore, September 2001.
A Course on Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit, Graduate School of Buddhist Studies, Geylang, Singapore, August 2001.
"Elementary Pali Course", Graduate school of Buddhist Studies, Geylang, Singapore, July, 2001.
"A Guide to Buddhism" twenty lectures on different aspects of Buddhist Philosophy and Culture, Graduate School of Buddhist Studies, Geylang, Singapore, December, 2001.

Books (Sinhala Medium):
Ayurveda Adhyayana, Stndies in Ayurveda - History, Basic principles and Related Concepts, Colombo, 2003.
Sinhala gi sahita Namastasatakaya ha Pratyasatakaya, Kandy, 2003 (A translation of Namastasataka and Pratyasatakaya into Sinhalese poems.).
Adi Bauddha Darsanaya - Muladharma Vigrahayak (Fundamentals of Early Buddhist Philosophy), Abhaya printing works, Kadawatha, 1994 (pp.239).
Bhavana Krama (Methods of Mediation), Samadhi Foundation, Kadawatha, 1994, (pp. 86).
Pali Language:- A Text book for G.C.E. (ordinary level), Co-author, Dept. of Eudcation, 1982 (pp. 236).
Books (English Medium):
Buddhist Social Philosophy and Ethics, Singapore, 2005.
Abhidhammic Interpretations of Early Buddhist Teachings, Singapore, 2005.
Early Buddhist Philosophy and Social Concepts, Buddhist Research Society, Singapore, 2001.
A Short Introduction to Early Buddhist Meditation, Paramita International Buddhist Society, Kandy, 2000.
Reality and Expression - A Study of the Conception of Pannatti in the Theravada Abhidhamma, Paramita Institute, Kandy, 1999.
An Introduction to Theravada Abhidhamma, Buddhist Research Society, Singapore, 1997.

English Medium:
Buddhist Social Philosophy and Culture, Singapore, 2005.
A Guideline to the Post-graduate Diploma in Buddhist Studies, Singapore, 2002.
An Introduction to Sanskrit Traditional Grammar and Buddhist Sanskrit Literature, Singapore, 2002.
An Introduction to Pali Traditional Grammar, Singapore, 2002.
Sinhala Medium:
Ayurvedic Research Methodology, W.A.I., 2003.
Buddhist Research Methodology, University of Kelaniya, Sri Lanka, 2000.

Sinhala Medium:
" Buddhist Psychiatric Methods for Conflict Resolution", Abhivadana, Kadawatha, 2003.
" Ayurvedic Concept of Psycho-physical Health", Ayurveda Samiksa, No. 12, Ayurvedic Educational Branch, Colombo, 2003.
" Specific Features of Pali Poems", Sri Kusaladhamma Felicitation Volume, Kelaniya, 2003.
" Buddhist Concept of Management", Dharmaduta - No. 4, Kandy, 2003.
" Principles of Institutional Management", Vivarana, Wadduwa, 2003.
Introduction, Apaya (Hell), Ven. M. Abhayatissa, Kelaniya, 2003.
Preface, Buddhist and Western Concepts of Mental Health, Ven. W. Sumanajoti, Negombo, 2003.
" Charity and Human Culture", Hye Jyong Sri Kalyani Gangarama Book Series - No 03, 2003.
" Human Abilities", Sambhavana, Colombo, 2001.
Introduction, Humanity, Ven. D. Medhananda, Colombo, 2001.
Introduction, States of India, Ven. S. Vijita, Colombo, 2001.
Introduction, Buddhist Meditation, Ven. K. Upali, Colombo, 2001.
"The Influenc of Pali Commentaries on the Organization of Early Buddhist Philosophy", Sarada, University of Kelaniya, 2001.
"A Critical Study of the Ethical Value of Theravada Abhidhamma", Anvesana, Journal of the Postgraduate Institute of Pali & Buddhist Studies, University of Kelaniya, 1999.
"Buddhist Studies in Modern Sri Lankan Universities", Journal of the Dept. of Pali and Buddhist Studies, University of Kelaniya, 1999.
"Buddhist Philosophy and the Lay Life", Prabuddha, Ven. U.Buddharakkhita Felicitation volume, Samayawardana, 1999.
"Theravada Analysis of Language in Philosophical Context", Journal of Faculty of Humanities Univeristy of Kelaniya, Vol. II, Samayawardena, 1999.
"Relevance of Abhidhamma in Buddhist Meditational Practices" Prajna Prabha, Ven. M. Dhammasiri Felicitation Volume, Government press, 1999.
"Majjhimanikaya Prastavanava", (An Introduction to Majjhimanikaya), Majjhimanikaya I Buddhist Cultual Center, Dehiwala, 1997.
"Sinhalla Sambhavaniya Sahityaye Prabhavayata ha Posanayata Pali Budusamayen labunu anubalaya" (The influence of Pali Buddhism on the origin and development of Sinhala Classical literature), Essays in Honour of Prof M. Tilakarathna, 1997.
"Theravada Abhidharmaye acaratmaka padanama" (The Ethical basis of Theravada Abhidhamma) in Sinhala Anvesana, Postgraduate Institute of Pali and Buddhist Studies, Colombo 5, 1996.
"Bauddha Bhavanave Samaja Sandarbhaya" (Social context of Buddhist Meditation), Paper in Sinhala read at Sri Jnanasiha Memorial seminar, Foundation Institute, Colombo, 1996.
An Introduction to Udanapali, in Sinhala.
"Trilaksanaya ha ehi visvasadharanatvaya mata Bauddha darsanaye muladhrma piriksima" (Fundametals of Buddhist Philosophy in relation to the universal characteristics), Sambhasa, Vol. Vii, 1996.
"Sarvastivada Abhidharmayata Sapeksakava Theravada Abhidharmayehi ananyatava ha suvisesatvaya pilibanda kei samalocanayak" (A short observation of the importance and the identity of the Theravada Abhidhamma in relation to that of Sarvastivada) Abhidharma adhyayana, ed. Asanga Tilakaratna, 1995.
"Pancaskandhavibhagaya ha Bauddha cintave samvardhanaya" (The analysis of five aggregates and the development of Buddhist thought) Sambhasa, Vol. vi Ministry of Education, 1994 (pp. 14-18).
"Bauddha darsanaye paryaya lakasana" (Universal characteristics of Buddhist Philosophy) Cintaka, Vol. 10, Association of Students, University of Kelaniya, 1994 (pp. 110-114).
"Lingattha Samkalpaya ha Pali Vyakaranaye Svadinatvaya" (The concept of Lingattha and the independent nature of the Pali traditional grammar) Pali Vyakarana tarangani, Vol. I, Ven. U. Dhammaratana, Vidyalankara, 1994 (pp.1-7).
"Theravada Abhidharmaya - Samksipta Handinvimak" (Theravada Abhidhamma - An Introduction, Vimala Vibhavi, Ven. B. Vimalavamsa felicitation Volume, Colombo 10, 1994 (pp. 33-38).
"Theragatha Prastavana" (An Introduction to Theragatha (Mahamoggallana-Vamgisa), Ven. U. Dhammaratana, 1994 (pp.ix.xxvii).
"Pustakalaya ha Paurusatva Samvardhnaya" (Library and the development of personality), Silawimala pustakalaya, Horampella, 1994 (pp.9-11).
"Abhayagiri Vasinge Middhavadaya ha e pilibanda Theravada vicaraya" (Theravada criticism of the Middhavada held by Abhayagirivasins), Vidyodaya Dharmasastriya samgrahaya, 1994 (pp. 15-22).
"Kala Rasikatvaya ha Buddhiparipakaya pilibanda Bauddha akalpaya" (The art and the development of Human thought-the Buddhist point of view), Sudharmaprabha , Kelaniya, 1993 (pp. 12-24).
"Bhasava Satyaya ha Yatharthya Pilibanda Theravada Mataya" (The Theravada view of language, Truth and Reality, Hisselle Dhammaratana Svamindra anusmarana Kalapaya, Kandy, 1993 (pp.53-60).
"Theravada Sabdarthavibhaga Kramayanhi Sastriya vedagatkama pilibanda keti samalocanayak" (The importance of the Methods of Exposition in Theravada Tradition) Sambhasa, Ministry of Education, Vol. 5, 1993 (pp. 169-174).
"Vanam Chindatha ma rukkham" (Cut the Forest but not the Trees), Asvane Nahimi Abhinandana, Minuwangoda, 1993 (pp.38-40).
"Bauddha Cintanaye Lankeya Vardhanaya" (Development of Buddhist Thought in Sri Lanka), 2300 Vasaraka Mihindu Sanskrutiya, Ministry of Buddhasasana, 1992 (pp. 116-133).
English Medium:
Introduction, Friendship, Ven. Pannaloka, Colombo, 2001.
Introduction, Facts of Buddhism, Mr. Wiranjeeva, Colombo, 2001.
"The Role of Buddhist Monks in the Present Society", Katane Dhammaloka Felicitation Volume, Sri Lanka, 2001.
"Parellel Developments of the Conception of Pannatti" Journal of Pali and Buddhist Studies, University of Kelaniya, 1999.
"Nature and Objectives of Early Buddhist Philosophy", Sri Saddhatissa Buddhist Centre, London, 1999.
"Extinction of Dissatisfaction and the Path of Freedom", Sambhasa Vol. 10, Ministry of Education and Higher Education, Government Press, 1999.
"Definitions of Phenomena and the Noumenon in the Exegetical Works of the Theravada Abhidhamma", Recent Researches in Buddhist Studies, Essays in Honour of Prof. Y.Karunadasa, Hong Kong, 1997.
"A Comparative Study of the Theravada Theory of Language, Truth and Reality", G.S.B. Senanayake Felicitation Volume, 1996.
"The Development of the Conception of Pannatti in the Psot-cannonical Abhidhammic Literature", Sri Kusaladhamma Felicitation Volume, No. iii, 1995.
"Theravada Theory of Sounds and Meanigs as reflected in the Pali Traditional Grammar", Sri Lanka Journal of Buddhist Studies, Buddhist and Pali University of Sri Lanka, Vol. iv, 1994 (pp. 163-174).

Pali:
"Asimsana", Samadhi, Essays in Honour of Ven. Chandasiri, 1996, (Six Pali verses).
"Panamo", a composition of three Pali verses, Vibhavi, A Journal of Pali Language, 1996.
"Ubhayatthasiddhikaro Tathagatappavedito Ariyamaggo", An article in Pali prose, Vibhabi, 1996.
"Gunanussaranam", Five verses in Pali, Vibhavi, 1996.
"Patthana", Ten verses in Pali, Vibhavi 1996.
Sanskrit:
"Atmadristipariksa", A Composition of twenty Sanskrit verses on the concept of soul, Samadhi, Essays in Honour of Ven. Chandasiri, 1996.

Saddharmapundarikasutra, Adhimuktiparivarta, 1998.

Sukhavativyuhasutra (samksiptamatruka) 1998.

Syllabuse of the certificate Course in Ayurveda, 2003.
Syllabuses of the Postgraduate Diploma in Hospital Management, W.A.I., 2003.
Syllabuses of the Postgraduate Diploma in Buddhist Studies, University of Kelaniya, 2001.
Syllabuses on Pali, Buddhist Philosophy and Buddhist Culture, B.A. and M.A. degrees in Sinhala and English mediums, University of Kelaniya, 1999.
Syllabuses on Pali for B.A., B.A. (Hons), Diploma and certificate courses, Buddasravaka Bhiksu University, Anuradhapura, 1998.
Syllabuses on Pali for B.A., and B.A. Honours degrees, University of Kelaniya, Dept. of Pali & Buddhist Studies, 1997.
Syllabuses for the Diploma course in Pali & Buddhist Studies, University of Kelaniya, 1997.
Syllabuses on Abhidhamma and Meditation, Buddhist Training Institute, Nesec Foundation, Ranmutugala, 1996.
Syllabuses in Pali, Sanskrit, Classical Chinese and Buddhist Philosophy, First year Examination, Yuan Heng Buddhist Collage, Kaoshiung, Taiwan, 1995.

"A Critical Edition of the Apheggusaradipanitika", Ven. Kham Mai Dhammasami, MPhil Thesis, Postgraduate Institute of Pali & Buddhist Studies, University of Kelaniya, 1996.
"Saddhammopayana" - A Critical Edition- and Translation , Ven. M.Kalyanatissa, MPhil Thesis, Postgraduate Institute of Pali & Buddhist Studies, University of Kelaniya, 1993.
"Saddhammopayana" - Edition and a Critical Study, - MPhil Thesis, Dept. of Pali & Buddhist Studies, University of Kelaniya, 1994.
"Concept of Mind", MPhil Thesis, Ven. K.Nanda, University of Kelaniya, 2002.
"Edition and Translation of the Pali version of St. Mathew, Ven. K.Dhammaloka MPhil Thesis, University of Kelaniya, 2002.
"Ven. Moggaliputtatissa's Contribution to the Development of the Theravada Buddhist Philosophy", Ven. Huang Chiuns Hui, MPhil Thesis, University of Kelaniya, 2001.
"Theravada Buddhism and the Concept of Amitabha" Ven. M. Mangala, MPhil Thesis, University of Kelaniya, 2001.
"Educational Concepts in the Buddhist Jataka Literature" G.Pannananda, MPhil Thesis, University of Kelaniya, 2003.
"Critical Edition of the Namaupariccheda", Ven.I. Dhammapala, MPhil Thesis, University of Kelaniya, 1999.
"The Abhidhamma Controversy on Citta, Caitta", A Study based on Abhidharmakosabhasya and Nyayanusara, PhD Thesis Ven. Shi Chun Yi, 2003.
A Comparative Study of the Methods of Respecting the Buddha in Theravada and Amitabha Tradition, MPhil. Thesis Ven. B.Dhammaratana, 2003.
Buddhist Concept of Health, MPhil. thesis, Ven. K.Saddharatana, 2003.
A Critical Study of the Training and Educational System of Nuns at the time of the Buddha with reference to Vinaya rules. MPhil. Thesis, Mrs. G.D. Karuna Jayasinghe, 2003.
A Critical Edition of Rajadhirajavilasini, Ven. R.Upali, MPhil. Thesis, 1998.
Theravada Concept of Language Philosophy, Ven. T. Siriniwasa, MPhil. Thesis, 1999.
Religious Organization in Aanuradhapura Period, Mphil. Thesis, Ven.Waradiwela Dhammarama Thera, 2007.

"A Critical Edition of Majjhimanikaya-Atthakatha-Tika", PhD Thesis, University of Kelaniya, 2001-2004.
"Critical Edition of the Anagatavamsa" M.Phil. Thesis, University of Kelaniya, 1998-1999.
"A Comprehensive Study of the Puggalapannattippakarana" M.Phil. Thesis, University of Kelaniya, 1998-1999.
"Buddhist Concept of Management" Ph.D. Thesis, University of Kelaniya, 1998-1999.
"Ancient Buddhist Education and the Catubhanavaapali" M.Phil. Thesis, University of Kelaniya, 1998-1999.
"Buddhist Concept of Twenty Four Conditions" M.Phil. Thesis, University of Kelaniya, 1998-1999.
"Religions Organization in Anuradhapura Period" MPhil. Thesis, University of Kelaniya, 1998-1999.
"Buddhist Philosophy of Education" Ph.D. thesis, University of Kelaniya, 1998-1999.

An Introduction to Pali Traditional Grammar, Buddhist Research Society, Singapore, 2002.
An Introduction to the Basic Doctrines of Early Buddhism and the Buddhist Schools, Buddhist Research Society, Singapore, 2002.
An Introduction to the Methods of Meditation in the Theravada Tradition, Buddhist Research Society, Singapore, 2002.
An Introduction to Buddhist Sanskrit, Buddhist Research Society, 2002.

Seminars and lectures on various topics at Pirivenas and Government Schools, from 1999.
Participation in Dhamma discussions, National Television on Full moon days, from 1999.
One year Television programme on TNL, Sri Lanka regarding Buddhist Counseling and Buddhism and Society, 1998.

Abstract:
Buddhism analyses the human personality into five grasping groups (pañcakkhandha) viz. form (rupa), feelings (vedana), perception (sannna), dispositions (sankhara) and consciousness (vinnana). Out of the above five groups the first refers to the physical body-five sense faculties and their respective objects. Five sense faculties represent the internal physical world and the sense objects represent the so called external physical world. The next four groups refer to the psychological aspect of human personality.

Food is an essential factor for the development of human personality. Buddhism recommends four kinds of food for the development of human beings. viz.

Edible food - kabalinkarahara
Sensations - phassahara
Mental volition - manosancetanahara
Surviving consciousness - vinnanahara
It should be emphasized that three kinds of food out of the four are mental.

According to the above factors it should be clear that the greater part of human development is related to the mental aspect of personality.

The particular Buddhist practice recommended for mental development is called meditation (bhavana).

The methods of meditation practiced as concentration (samatha) and insight (vipassana) are aimed at developing the above mentioned aspects of human personality. The development of physical aspect of personality is the basis for mental development and the method to be followed for that is called morality (sila).

The functions of the five grasping groups are essentially interconnected. As a result, there arise greed (lobha), hatred (dosa), delusion (moha) and conceit (mana) in human personality. All these aspects when increased become harmful to the person as well as to the society in which he lives So Buddhism recommends for methods of meditation to reduce those harmful factors or defilements.

To reduce greed - reflection on filthy nature of personality
To reduce hatred - compassion meditation
To reduce delusion - reflection on in and out breathing
To reduce conceit - reflection on the impermanent nature of the world
A person who has eradicated the above four aspects by following the respective methods of meditation is called an aryan disciple fully developed.

This is, in brief, the relationship between human development and the Buddhist meditation.



 

Postgraduate Institute of Pali and Buddhist Studies,
No: 113,
Dutugamunu Street,
Kohuwala, Sri Lanka.